The optimal deployment of inventory is a vital function for all corporations. Nevertheless, the inventory management as a necessary policy is not given priority in large number of Companies, especially more service oriented ones. Moreover, some Companies do not even exploit widely known and used inventory management techniques during their procurement related decision making. One of the mentioned techniques is the implementation of reorder-point-reorder-quantity referred to as (R, Q) policies, which are widely used in industry and extensively studied in the inventory literature. This project examined the present state of inventory management in Armenia Telephone Company (“ArmenTel”) based on the historical data of turnover of twenty three inventory items. By means of simulations of different scenarios for reorder-point and reorder-quantity policies, recommendations for optimised inventory management policies were made.
The present study dealt with the mobile telephony market of Armenia and specifically with the value-added services of one of the major players, Armentel. The study examined the internal and external environment of the company in order to set the frame within which the company operates and offers its services. Moreover, the study aimed at tracing the reasons for the moderate acceptance of the above mentioned services by the Armenian customers, using tools such as market research and personal interviews of executives. The study concluded with the creation of a complete Marketing Plan for the re-launch of Armentel’s value-added services.
The purpose of the project was to define the methodology framework with which Computer Project will conduct business operations by adding the ERP MBS – Navision in its portfolio of solutions. The methodology framework adds value by offering a wide range of tools and techniques to be used by Computer Project in formulating its strategy, in determining the target market and positioning within it, as well as in the creation and deployment of a new business unit. A change management plan was developed for the deployment of the new business unit, and furthermore methodologies for Marketing, Sales, Implementation and Support were developed.
Finally, productivity and performance indicators were established. By applying the methodology framework, Computer Project can quickly attain competitive advantages and differentiate itself from its competitors.
This study examined various organizational, environmental and technological factors associated with the adoption of a new web-based procurement service by potential users (buyers and suppliers of fuel products). Raw data were taken by a recent telephone survey (conducted by third parties) to 128 commercial and industrial companies (fuel buyers) from various sectors and were analyzed in order to identify whether the launching of this new service in the fuel market, namely “FuelONE” will be successful. Using logistic regression analysis and cross-tabulation analysis along with a qualitative research we conducted, by directly interviewing nine companies (eight potential buyers and one potential supplier), we concluded on four important adoption factors. The use of technology, the size of the company, the degree of organization and monitoring of the procurement procedure as well as cost efficiency as a perceived benefit are all significantly associated with the adoption of the service.
The objective of the project was to develop a business plan for the GPS/GPRS service of CosmoONE. The GPS/GPRS service was explained and the service offering analyzed. An in-depth discussion of the market was conducted by examining six distinct sector companies involved in fleet management. Both primary and secondary market data were collected in order to support the business plan. A financial analysis was also performed by extracting cash flows from the business model and simulating different scenarios.
This project aimed to find and examine different scenarios related to the structure of an outbound logistics service of CPI. The goal of the project was the better understanding and use of the outbound logistics administration and more specifically the design of a model that will help the company to reduce the delivery costs and improve the quality of customer services.
Epignosis Ltd operates in the e-learning industry as a supplier of the eFront platform. In view of expanding its business, the company wishes to assess the e-learning needs of Vocational Education and Training providers. The objective of this project was to provide analysis and recommendations for this expansion of the e-learning activity portfolio. After a general introduction to the concept of e-learning, the study accumulates data from the international experience, reveals trends and identifies best practices. Drawing on this knowledge, the current supply of technology, services and e-content in Greece was identified and analysed, and the potential demand by Vocational Education and Training providers was predicted. Finally the information related to the supply and the expected demand of e-learning in Greece were integrated and the most appropriate product offering scenarios for the future operation of the new company were discussed.
FORTHnet is one of the biggest ISPs in Greece. Nowadays FORTHnet is expanding its activities on the telecom industry by entering in the liberalised fixed telephony market. In order to overcome the hard competition presented in the specific sector, great effort should be spent on identifying cost generators, examining investments and the corresponding risk, studying the parameters of the market and performing accurate and effective network planning.
The main scope of the project was to identify and formulate the requirements specification of a complete DSS product, in a modular mode, that will encounter the main enterprise drivers which are, the cost analysis, the market model, the investments & risk part, the Network dimensioning and a scenario analysis. The objective is to assist the management of FORTHnet at the decision making procedure on the product & services development domain by providing a complete analytical tool that gathers information from the main enterprise areas, performs algorithm based calculations and produces meaningful indexes & alternatives for the formulation of a decision.
Information Service Providers (ISPs) are looking for different ways to develop and extend their business. The way in which applications are bought, sold and used is what has the potential to turn ISPs into application service providers (ASPs). The focus of this project was to develop a strategic plan that gives to FORTHNET the right mix of actions, alliances and investments to succeed in this transformation. The objective of was a) to develop a rigorous commercial understanding of the ASP model opportunities and to maximize the value from them, and b) to develop a strategic plan for how the value can be realized including recommendations on: investment requirements, partnering strategy, channel & technology requirements, organizational design and business. The purpose of the strategic plan was two fold; to attract partners/ investors and to document an operational plan for controlling the business.
Corporate information has become a commodity in the sense that today’s corporate entities have long used alternative channels in order to faster and better reach their customer base. There exist a lot of traditional channels of such corporate information diffusion with Yellow Pages being one of the most effective and well established in the market. Amongst other ways of accessing Yellow Pages information (published catalogues and/or voice directory services) one of the most innovative is the one of Yellow Pages via Internet. In the context of the Wireless CIS project, the existing Yellow Pages business/service model will be further exploited and elaborated by the use of mobile communications technology as an alternative channel, additional to the existing one of Internet in order to provide user-oriented and value added services targeted to a much broader customer base, i.e. mobile subscribers. The main objective with the project was a systematic assessment of the business risks and opportunities and the development of a testing application prototype to be disseminated.
Citron, a Knowledge Management Portal developed by Globo Technologies, is the key subject of this FSP. As such Knowledge Management tools became important to companies, we conducted a critical approach to Citron so as to explore its internal competencies and external perspectives. We developed a questionnaire that would investigate a) the adoption rate and b) the managerial implications of a Knowledge Management platform. The research was carried out by using both questionnaires and interviews. We proposed a method for the quantitative analysis of the benefits that a K.M. platform offers. The results revealed opportunities for the development of future functionalities, marketing approaches and areas of interest. The implications of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are presented.
This study provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in knowledge and information management solutions and analyses the current trends on the market. The results are linked to Globo’s product development process in order to better define the characteristics and performance of new software solutions developed in the company. The objective of the project was to link technological expertise in development to the latest trends in the KM area. The core deliverable consists of an assessment of the potentials of the software, the Citron corporate portal, to develop into a full-blown corporate portal.
This project focused with the market of IT services for Greek middle sized companies and extends prior research, having the following main objectives: a) the presentation of the current situation, b) the creation of an ecosystem for HP and c) the development of useful recommendations that HP can follow in order to successfully approach the companies in the mid-market segment. The research was based on a questionnaire survey that included HP customers, non-customers and partners. The results of the survey were assessed in order to derive useful conclusions -concerning the behaviour of the ecosystem’s actors, the demand, the competition and the relevant trends – presented in a consolidated action plan. The recommendations comprise marketing and business strategy guidelines, based on an integration of survey data and qualitative insights.
The IT services market is a rather volatile industry, in which major trends such as price pressure, sophistication of clients attitudes and polarization played significant role during the past three years. Our analysis ranges from the mature markets of Western Europe to the unsaturated markets located in developing countries, such as Greece, Romania, & Russia. IBM’s strategic logic is clearly based on differentiation and supported by its top quality, high tech, innovative and extensively diversified portfolio of service offerings. Dell, a challenger of IBM’s and HP’s market leadership positions (especially in the SMB segment), pursues a cost leadership strategic approach, which stems from its cost advantage that derives from its direct model for its products and indirect model (leveraging partnerships) for services. GE IT Solutions, although part of the GE giant, remains a small player in the IT services arena, based on a niche strategic logic, with its services adjusted to the needs of the large vertical markets, such as Healthcare, Energy, and Government. As far as HP is concerned, it bases its strategic logic on its hybrid strategy, pursuing both competitive pricing and superior quality (through differentiation), to achieve the Best Customer Experience (BCE). Finally, HP could exploit the benefits of a potential cooperation (alliance) with GE, through which it will gain access to and knowledge from numerous vertical markets in which GE is active; GE will enrich its service portfolio (e.g. with consulting services), while R&D and operations’ synergies will prove beneficial for both parties.
The study deals with the complex issue of proposing a set of indicators for measuring R&D performance and R&D productivity in particular. Initially a bibliography and Internet research was conducted in order to explore the depth and breadth of indicators applying to this specific area of performance management in academia. After various stages of analysis leading to a condensed list of metrics, a series of interviews followed with the company’s R&D software and hardware engineers. The scope of this attempt was to come up with an evaluation of the final set of indicators used in the interviews, resulting from within the company and based on the engineers’ experience. Thus, a final set of metrics coming from the interviews along with some additional ones that the Field Study Project Team proposed was suggested as a reliable measurement tool of R&D productivity.
The objective of this study is the development of a proposal for a career path model for companies in the telecommunication sector in general and for INTRACOM in particular. The team conducted extensive literature and Internet search on career path theory and best practice case studies. Additionally, interviews were conducted with personnel and HR executives. Based on the information gathered, the team proposed a career path model for engineers, working in the telecom sector and that could be adopted by INTRACOM.
This FSP investigates and designs the isMOOD cORE platform, a new venture isMOOD is planning to implement. The new venture lies in the field of content marketing & distribution and capitalizes isMOOD’s expertise on social network analytics. Since the volume of information available on the Internet is constantly increasing, it becomes more and more challenging for a marketer and a content creator to make its content easily identifiable by the targeted Internet user/potential customer.
Towards evaluating the new venture, the FSP presents and analyzes the current situation of the content marketing and distribution market. It also focuses on the existing competition and also on the challenges and problems that professionals in the field have to overcome.
To sum up, this FSP concludes on the design of the cORE platform, whose aim is to bring together publishers and content creators in order to make distribution of content easier and more effective in an optimal way, taking into consideration three basic factors: the content, the influencing power of each publisher (based on the structure of the network) and finally the incorporated gamification elements to enhance user engagement.
The field study project applies the KAOS methodology in the Requirements Definition phase of a specific Software Development project, traces eventual omissions and suggests possible improvements in the realization of the project.
As far as the KAOS methodology is concerned, the following conclusions resulted from the analysis: instead of providing an easy solution, the KAOS methodology analyses in depth the problem and its environment, it offers completeness and leaves no room for ambiguity. With regard to the particular software development project, certain issues were detected concerning the workflow, for which there was no provision to be incorporated in the functionality of the System. Such issues should be taken into consideration for the reflection of the process within the System in order to cover users’ possible future needs.
The project deliverable provides know-how for the implementation of this pioneering methodology enabling significant time and cost savings for the sponsoring organization.
The initial target of the project was to develop a better understanding of the WiMAX technology as well as the gaps and the needs that it covers in the international and the Greek market. The business plan then provided Lannet Telecommunications with information regarding the bundle of services that can be offered through its WiMAX network, the possible ways of implementing this network and a complete and thorough proposal for the marketing strategy the company should follow, as well as the economic background of this investment in a five years period. A detailed analysis of the Greek telecommunication’s market is presented, with predictions and comments for the future evolutions. Recommendations concerning the company’s commercial, operational and technology moves were provided.
This study presents the results of a survey measuring the organizational climate and change readiness of LogicDIS. The survey was carried out through the anonymous completion of questionnaires, regarding recent changes in the company’s organizational structure and aspects of the organizational culture. An analysis of the literature with reference to change management was conducted and linked to the survey findings. Recommendations about how to reduce resistance to change and strengthen change readiness were proposed to management.
CPFR (Collaborative Planning Forecasting and Replenishment) is a new practice that enhances the cooperation between retailers and suppliers in the grocery retail sector through the exchange of sales data, promotions plans, etc. in order to support the store replenishment and the efficient response to consumer needs (ECR, Efficient Consumer Response).
The ΟΝΙΑ-ΝΕΤ electronic marketplace, operating as a vertical market in the grocery retail sector, gives emphasis to the ordering and promotion management processes at the supermarket store, the end point of sales. Contrary to a typical marketplace, ΟΝΙΑ-ΝΕΤ innovates through a ‘collaborative order creation’ model (Process of Collaborative Store Ordering – PCSO ), which fully leverages the daily sell-out data of each store (POS scanning data) as well as other critical information to the benefit of both the retailer and suppliers. The ΟΝΙΑ-ΝΕΤ PCSO model extends the CPFR concept down to the store level.
ΟΝΙΑ-ΝΕΤ has recently been selected to represent Europe in the GCI (Global Commerce Initiative) Working Group on CPFR. Via this participation ΟΝΙΑ-ΝΕΤ will focus on the n-tier aspects of CPFR and the development of requirements and standards for supporting collaboration and replenishment at various stages of the supply chain.
The objective of the specific field-study project is to support ΟΝΙΑ-ΝΕΤ in this field, which represents a big opportunity for the company’s expansion at European level and contributes to enhancing the company’s service offerings.
The project team analysed the CPFR aspects of the ΟΝΙΑ-ΝΕΤ marketplace model in order to support the company in its participation in GCI. More specifically, the various CPFR elements of the PCSO model, and the impact these have on the participating companies at various stages of the supply chain were analysed. Specific requirements and tools that support the collaboration between partners were developed.
There is a clear need for ONIA-NET to specifically define the various services the company offers to its customers and at the same time evaluate perceived value in order to determine the company’s pricing policy. The project defines in detail the existing and new services that the company. The benefits of each service as well as the development and operation cost associated with it are analysed and the project assesses the value offered to both customers and the development of the company’s service offering.
Discount coupons represent an important marketing tool for both suppliers and retailers in the grocery retail market. This projects aims to explore the transformation of these paper coupons into e-coupons and the advantage that this transformation represents to the stakeholders. ONIA-NET is a new company implementing innovative business solutions in the Greek grocery retail market, facilitated by advanced web-technologies and new logistics models. The company has identified e-coupons as a business opportunity and wants to develop a full business plan exploring its market potential. This project develops a business plan describing the service offering, the required infrastructure and overall investment, the customer base and expected revenues for the company. It also proposes methods for the evaluation of this business opportunity, thus providing strategic decision data on whether to pursue it or not.
This Field Study Project is concerned with New Generation Access Networks (NGAs). In particular, the investments on this field in other countries are studied and the regulatory rules on NGAs are researched. In the beginning, the international experience on this issue is presented through the study of four countries in terms of three basic pillars of analysis: investments, regulation and economic growth due to NGAs. Furthermore, a comparative analysis and evaluation of these four countries follows though various selected indicators and graphs and the corresponding conclusions related with the sustainable development of NGAs and their contribution to the social and economic environment are denoted. In the last chapter of the Field Study Project, the situation regarding NGAs in our country is presented and after its evaluation, the conclusions and recommendations about NGAs in Greece are exhibited.
The aim of the project was to identify new services that OTE Group could launch in the Greek market. These services are not limited to the field of telecoms only; current technologies are taken into account so as to shape these services which are supposed to differentiate OTE Group from the competition and to be adopted by the Greek consumers. The increasing competition has rendered the market fragmented; firms offer a variety of services, lowering prices and sometimes, unfortunately, the quality of services. OTE does not negotiate the quality of services. The first part of the project resulted in a presentation of available and upcoming technologies in the integrated field of telecoms and IT. The second part focuses on a limited number of proposals for new services that could be adopted by OTE. The research was supported by an online survey on the targeted services, where over 350 respondents picked their service of preference.
The telephone directory service distributes more than 6.5 million catalogues all over Greece and to selected recipients abroad. It also receives around 3000 directories from abroad that are distributed in Greece. This project is concerned with increasing the recipient’s satisfactory level by looking into the market needs through a customer survey and by analyzing the back-office operations in terms of distribution spaces, distribution means, warehouse management and distribution-production interface.
This project presents an effort for the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) at OTEGlobe. First, the mission, and the objective of OTEGlobe are defined and analyzed inside the Greek and international competitive business environment, with the use of strategic tools, such as MOST and SWOT analysis. Then, the theory of the BSC is presented. OTEGlobe’s mission and strategy is translated into 3 basic strategic themes through executive interviews and employee questionnaires. The strategic objectives of the four BSC perspectives were analyzed with the use of the strategy map as well as the way in which, intangible assets are transformed into tangible customer and financial outcomes. The cause-and-effect logic for each of the four perspectives is analyzed and measures are proposed and selected. Further, for the analysis of the learning and growth perspective an employee survey has been developed and contacted. As this perspective is the foundation and the starting point for any essential and long-term strategy changes, a thought-full approach was necessary. Finally, suggestions for further implementation and use of the BSC as an ultimate strategy driver are proposed.
The construction industry is undoubtedly the largest sector of the global economy. As a result the outcome of the construction process and the various relationships that are shaped within the industry and among different parts of this process, exert enormous influence not only on the sector itself but also on the global economy as a whole. Moreover, the construction sector is diverse and fragmented and presents problems and insufficiencies of organization, collaboration and coordination of the various processes and parts that are involved in the construction process. The use of information systems can add significant advantages to the operations of the industry through the focused implementation of specialized systems on each one of the different functions of the industry. This project analysed i-construct, which is an online project management and collaboration system aiming specifically at the Greek construction sector. I -construct is offered by the company Project On Line. In order to promote i-construct and discover ways how to use it efficiently and effectively, we have to determine the maturity of the Greek construction sector regarding the adoption of information systems and detect the existing needs and gaps. We conducted a survey in the Greek construction industry regarding the adoption of information systems. Through the survey we also detected the real needs of the sector and discovered potential gaps, which I-construct could bridge.
The basic inefficiencies we run into refer to communication problems, document management gaps, and supply support needs. Based on these findings and on the general research, we assumed regarding construction practices we identified proper strategies for the promotion of I-construct and proposed ways for expansion in way that serves the identified gaps.
The project is aiming at the analysis of consumer’s behavior of the “www.you.gr” e-shop. You.gr belongs to the Quest Group and it’s currently one of the biggest and most popular electronic shops in Greece. It was first launched in December 2006 as a pure technology web shop, but during the last few months it has expanded its product lines by adding living and healthcare products. More specifically, this project is targeting in extracting valuable knowledge related to consumer behavior through modern techniques of Data Mining which will lead to: Α) a more efficient communication and promotion of the company’s products, based on the preferences, behavior and personalized needs of every customer. Β) the design of an integrated Loyalty System, adjusted to the characteristics of the consumer data base of the company, offering incentives and rewarding customers interaction with the web shop platform (number of purchased products, shares, tell a friend etc.) C) The establishment of practices that can be implemented systematically in order to observe efficiently consumer’s behavior in the long run. Through a deep and very well structured research the FSP AUEB team was able to establish some substantial conclusions and suggestions to you.gr based on very important information that was extracted from data manipulation.
This study deals with the synthesis of the IT landscape in the Media industry. The research has three objectives. First, a presentation of the current situation of the IT environment in the Media sector, second, an analysis and an evaluation of the situation as it is viewed by the IT Managers in the Media sector and third, recommendations for how to develop Sun’s market share in the Media sector. Relying on data from a variety of sources including a questionnaire distributed to IT managers in the Media sector a strategic marketing approach was proposed to the company.
This project investigates potential opportunities of growth for an IT company, UniSystems, in the field of HR and Payroll Management by providing a cloud-based service (AtomoPlus) as well as it contains a competitor analysis for the main players in the market we are searching. In co-operation with UniSystems, and focused on AtomoPlus (a cloud- based service for Payroll and HR management) we achieved two main goals; the first one is to understand where AtomoPlus and UniSystems are placed in the Greek marketplace by doing a Competitive Analysis for the product and using the 5 Forces Porter Model and SWOT analysis for the company. The second one is that we identified opportunities of growth via a Market Research. Through a situation analysis, we clarified the benefits of on-premise development and SaaS. Through quantitative survey, we also examined greek companies’ attitudes towards cloud-based services (Payroll & generally), and on-premise development vs. outsourcing. We also examined whether people are open to try new innovative solutions and the results show that they seek for new procedures and they enhance their colleagues to think out of the box. However, a large percentage of the participants are not substantially familiar with cloud computing while only 1 out of 100 has already adopted this new method to run its payroll services. We end up this report with recommendations to UniSystems in order to include some specific actions in the AtomoPlus strategy.
This is a study about business models for e-governance services provided over broadband networks in Greece and the potential role that the sponsor company Uni Systems S.A. could play in these models. The study begins with an overview of the Broadband evolution, the existing access technologies and the corresponding capabilities that these provide to Internet users. A Market Analysis about the Broadband Internet penetration globally and in Greece follows. E-governance services are presented and categorized by the ultimate beneficiary and the level of their evolution. The demand and supply of these services abroad is reported and compared with the situation in Greece. The key role of the state and its interventions towards e-governance realization in Greece are identified. The last part of the study is focused on business model propositions related to e-governance services and the value chain layers analysis. Propositions for how Unisystems can position in this value chain are made.
The purpose of the project was to create a marketing strategy plan for SOLO Gateway taking into account the evolving market dynamics and competitive landscape at an international level. The report lists recommendations for SOLO Gateways extended marketing mix (7 Ps), in order for SOLO Gateway to improve its UC market share. These recommendations were based on the competition analysis, SWOT analysis, the results of market research, as well as from internet research about UC solutions.
A feasibility study for e-auctioning services in the Greek market was conducted. Building on an in-depth analysis of the strategic fit of such services in the company and a comprehensive overview of the international literature concerning e-auction concepts, rules and applications, an analysis of European and Greek e-auctions market as well as a market research were conducted. Functional requirements and the steps that have to be followed for successful implementation were outlined, and recommendations for an action plan laid out.
A Marketing and Strategy Plan for mVisionTM, an innovative product, which enables its subscribers to watch videos through their mobile phones, in real time, using the technology of cameras placed in various locations was developed. The predisposition of the final consumers towards the product as well as that of companies which could incorporate mVisionTM in their current service package was examined. The purpose was to define the general trend towards the product and the market that it can be addressed to. An additional objective was to define the potential usages that might be of interest to customers and choose the most popular among them, since mVision has multiple applications. The suggestions developed focus on how to promote this project and on the specification of a pricing policy for its market launch.
The objective of this study was to explore the Greek and Balkan market of Voice Portals and formulate a suitable marketing plan for Virtual Trip Ltd. In order to achieve this purpose the team gathered primary and secondary market data, through means of Internet research, expert interviews and a questionnaire survey. The examination of this data showed that the future market potential of Voice Portal products and services is high, although the until now implemented projects are very few. This is due to various factors with the most significant among them, the relative ignorance of the capabilities of the proposed solutions and the persistence to legacy platforms. The study also examined the internal strengths and weaknesses of Virtual Trip and compared them with those of its main competitors, leading to a set of suggestions for specific marketing actions that would give it a competitive advantage.
The objective of this study is the analysis of content in mobile value added services and the presentation of proposals for the strategic positioning of Vizzavi in this market and the methods of preparing, executing and evaluating sms marketing promotional campaigns.
The scope of the study covers the Greek mobile telecommunication market, the companies, products and services focusing on text messaging services-SMS- and multimedia messaging services-MMS-. ?he project deals also with the development of next generation messaging services and the SMS Marketing promotional campaigns.
Implementing Knowledge Management in an operational department of a knowledge-based and high technology organisation, such as Vodafone, is not an easy task. Firstly, because knowledge management is a discipline related to people and has to be totally aligned with the company’s overall strategy, culture and organisational structure. Secondly, because we talk about knowledge of extreme expertise and technical taciturnity that engineers gained through years of experience and has a short life cycle before considered obsolete. In order to come up with a feasible proposal to the company, the project is based on an analysis of organization needs through a questionnaire survey and interviews with the staff, a benchmarking among the best IT solutions that exist now in the market and a well-planned justification on a theoretical base.
This field study project is about creating the requirements analysis for the call centers of the insurance companies in Greece, and designing the dialogs for the development of a voice application for automating the customer care support functions. The project was requested by Voice Web, a company that implements voice portals.
The study begins with an extensive reference to voice applications and their technologies, giving details not only about their features and characteristics but also about the additional parts that compose their complete architecture. The voice recognition technology market is analyzed both on a global and on a local level along with references in applications and their growth in general. Specific applications of the world insurance industry are also presented and an analysis of the Greek insurance sector follows. Then, there is a description of the methodology used and the steps of execution with their objectives, beginning with the information collection, the questionnaires and interviews planning, the analysis of the results, up to the final composition of the proposals. Following this, there is a detailed questionnaires’ analysis and a presentation of the proposals along with an analysis for their prioritization and evaluation. At the end we present the proposed dialogs for 21 services with the conclusions as these derive from the previous analysis and additionally a very useful ROI analysis that can be used by the insurance company.